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IYTOOPA/AF-RA-KA and the Diaspora Timeline……this took sum time to add…… 1 de septiembre de 2013 a la(s) 22:24

IYTOOPA/AF-RA-KA and the Diaspora Timeline

2.5 MM — Homo habilis (Ityiopian) appears. 1.0 MM — Homo erectus (Ityiopian) appears. 150 M — Homo sabiens sapiens (Ityiopian) appears. 83000 — Ityiopians begin iron mining in the Nile Valley.

91000 — Order of the Lion is established (Iytoopian samurai)

75000 — Africans of Ityopia create the first sculpture of a human figure. 72000 — South Iytoopains build first solar calender65000 — Iytopians craft sea fairing ships 62000 — Arrival of Australians in Australia. 61000 Iytoopian reach japan shores 47000 — Arrival in Europe by the Grimaldi Negroid from Africa. 37000 — First Cro-Magnon in Europe. 27850 — Ityiopians cultivating and harvesting barley and einkorn wheat in the Nile Valley. 25000 — Ityiopians in Kenya domesticate cattle. 22000 — Sebelian II rules in Pre-Dynastic Kemet. 20000 — The first lunar calendar is introduced by the Ityiopian of the Nile Valley……ALL BC……000

— Sebelian III rules in Pre-Dynastic Kemet. 6020 — Africans in the Congo use markings on bones to develop a numeration system. 4100 — 3800 — Emergence of earliest Nubian civilization. 3758 — The world’s first religious principles are written by the Kushite, King Ori (right & wrong). 3400 — Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti founded. 3150 — King Narmer (Menes) unifies Upper and Lower Kemet and establishes Memphis as capital. 3000 — Modern West Africans develop more complex societies in Nigeria. 2980 — King Khasekhemuwy rules in Kemet during the 2nd Dynastry. 2900 — Kush invades and establishes the Kingdom of Elam in the Empire of Persia. 2685 — The Grand Lodge of Luxor was built at Danderah by Khufu. 2650 — Imhotep of Ta-Merry builds Step Pyramid and Saqqara complex during Zoser’s reign. 2500 — Indus Valley civilization in India develops, Dravidians from Africa are foundation builders. 2465 — All the great pyramids at Dahshur & Giza, sun temples and mortuary complexes completed. 2323 — Pyramid Texts inscribed in tomb of King Unas. 2300 — An African King rules Mesopotamia, King Patesi of Lagash, more generally known as

Gudea. 2150 — Kemet experiences cultural upheaval (until 2040 B.C.E.). 2040 — Mentuhotep II unifies Kemet and relocates the capital to Waset.2000 — Beginning of the Kingdom of Cush in Sudan with its capital at Kerma. 1897 — Amenemhet constructs the great Kemetic Labyrinth. 1783 — First Asian invasion of Kemet by Hyksos (until 1550 B.C.E.). 1700 — Agricultural revolution in sub-Saharan Africa. 1550 — King Ahmose defeats the Hyksos and

reunifies Kemet. 1504 — Thutmose I expands rulership to include Persia and Iraq. 1500 — Beginning of the Olmecs in Mexico (to 800 B.C.E.). 1473 — Queen Hatshepsut rules Kemet as first female pharaoh. 1391 — Thutmose III rules Kemet at the height of its military power. Queen Tiye rules by his side. 1353 — Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) introduces concepts of Aton as the only God in Kemet. 1333 — Tutankhamen becomes the king. 1306 — Seti I, the father of Rameses II builds major tomb in the Valley of the Kings. 1290 — Rameses II (Rameses the Great) rules Kemet for 67 years. 1070 — Period of great social, political, and religious decline in Kemet (until 750 B.C.E.). 970 — Cush becomes an independent kingdom with the capital at Napata on the Nile. 760 — King Kashta rules Meroe until 751 751 — Piye (Piankhi), Nubian king conquers Upper and Lower Kemet removing foreigners 716 — King Shabato rules Meroe until 701 690 — Taharqa leads military invasion of Spain and Palestine. 667 — Nubians battle Assyrians for both Lower and Upper Kemet. 600 — Pharaoh Necho (Niku) II commissioned Hanno to circumnavigate the entire continent of

Africa. 548 — The Secret Temple of the Mysteries System of Delfi is burnt to the ground. 538 — King Analma’aye rules Kush until 533. 533 — King Amani-natake-lebte rules Kush until 513. 525 — Kemet invaded by Cambyses and becomes a part of the Persian Empire. 513 — King Korkamani rules Kush until 503. 503 — King Amani-astabarqa rules Kush until 478. 500 — Nok culture thrives in western Sudan (Nigeria). 478 — King Sisaspiqa rules Kush until 458. 460 — Herodotus arrives in Kemet searching for knowledge. 458 — King Nasakhma rules Kush until 453. 453 — King Malewiebamani rules Kush until 423. 423 — King Talakhamani rules Kush until 418. 418 — King Aman-nete-yerike rules Kush until 398. 398 — King Baskakeren rules Kush until 397. 397 — King Harisiotet rules Kush until 362. 380 — 30th Dynasty is the last period of rulership by native-born Kemetic kings (ends 343 B.C.E.). 342 — King Akhratan rules Kush until 328. 332 — Alexander of Macedonia (Alexander the Great) defeats the Persian army and conquers

Kemet. 328 — King Nastasen rules Kush until 308. 300 — In Kush the royal institution of the Kentake (Candaces) or Queen Mother is established. 300 — Africans in Kenya develop a complex calendar system based on astronomical reckoning. 280 — Merotic Script, an indigenous form of written communication is introduced. 260 — Queen Bartare rules Meroe until 250. 250 — Zenith of Meroitic civilization until 100 A.D. 218 — Hannibal leads his army across the Alps to challenge Rome. 170 — Queen Shanakdakhete rules Meroe until 160. 41 — Queen Amanishabhete rules Meroe until 12; Roman invasion occurs in 23. 30 — Augustus Caesar claims Egypt as a province of Rome. 22 — Africans living in Tanzania produce carbon steel in 1,800°C blast furnaces. 12 — Queen Amaritare rules Meroe until 12 A.D. 62 A.D. — Queen Amanikhastashan rules Meroe (Nubia) until 85 100 — Hausa Bokwoi rose as an

empire in Nigeria

(beginning as separate states). 300 — States of Takrur and Ghana founded. 330 — Conquest of Meroitic Empire by Nuba; Aksum becomes commercial center of sub-Saharan. 350 — Aksumite king Ezana converts to Christianity and declares it the state religion.. 391 — Christian Emperor Theodosius bans the ancient religious systems of Egypt (book burning). 500 — Originally from Mali or Guinea, the Djembe’ is believed to have seen it’s invention near this

time. 527 — Christian Emperor Justinian closes the last Egyptian temple at Philae. 550 — Emperor Kanissa-ai of Ghana chooses Koranga as his capital city; his mother was born

there. 641 — Moslems first invasion of Nubia (Sudan). 642 — Conquest of Egypt by Arabs and the introduction of Islam. 700 — States of Gao and Kanem founded (until 900). 715 — The first Moorish Dynasty, the Umayyad, ruled Spain from 715 to 750. 846 — Founding of the Kanem-Bornu kingdom east of Lake Chad. 880 — The Yoruba founded Ife, still the spiritual centre of Yorubaland. 900 — Kingdom of Ghana. 990 — Grasslanders move into the forests of Nigeria, begin dynasties at Oyo and Benin. 1000 — Islam moves into sub-Saharan Africa. 1000 — Great Zimbabwe is the capital of Mwenetupa Empire in Southern Africa. 1050 — Mandingo king Baramendana Keita converts to Islam by his own choosing. 1054 — Muslim Berbers (Almoravids) declare a jihad against the Kingdom of Ghana. 1067 — Tunka Menin rules the Empire of Ghana. 1087 — Kanem-Bornu converts to Islam. 1100 — Kingdom of Benin (until 1897). 1116 — According to Idrisi, the emperor of Ghana lived in a stone-fortified castle with glass

windows. 1200 — Establishment of Hausa kingdoms in west Africa; first kingdom: Daura. 1203 — Fall of the kingdom of Ghana to the Sosso. 1230 — The fourth and last Moorish Dynasty, The Almohade falls in Spain. 1230 — Kingdom of Mali established under King Sundiata Keita (ruled 1230-1255). 1290 — The Dogon of Mali plot the orbits of various universes and star systems including Sirius B1. 1300 — The slave trade greatly expands in northern Africa, Ethiopia, and the West African savanna. 1324 — Emperor of Mali, Mansa Mussa goes to Mecca with an entourage of 60,000. 1332 — Death of Mansa Musa, the great king of Mali (ruled 1307-1332). 1375 — Gao secedes from Mali, eventually becomes the Songhai Empire.1415 — Portuguese battle Arabs and Moors in Ceuta in Morocco. 1420 — Minority Tutsi follow Hutu into Rwanda and establish a feudal monarchy. 1438 — The Portuguese travel down the coast of Africa. 1440 — Eware the Great (ruled 1440-1473) expands Benin into a great forest empire. 1442 — The

Portuguese buy a small number of African prisoners of war from other Africans. 1450 — Decline of the Kingdom of Mali; rise of the Songhai Empire. 1460 — Cayor emancipates itself from Mali to become an independent province. 1465 — Seven Cayorian dynasties last until 1870; they never embraced Islam. 1468 — Sonni Ali conquers Timbuktu removing the Tuaregs who caused much damage. 1484 — The Fung Kingdom reigns in Sudan until 1790. 1493 — Muhammad Touré (1493-1528) assumes power in Songhai; the empire becomes Muslim. 1500 — Consolidation of Songhai Empire under Askia Muhammed. 1517 — Egypt conquered by the Turks of the Ottoman Empire.

The Diaspora Begins

1518 — The first enslaved Africans arrived in South America, the Caribbean, and North America. 1529 — Muslim state of Adal declares a jihad against Christian Ethiopia, conquers most of Ethiopia. 1538 — The first recorded importation of Africans into Brazil. 1541 — Ethiopia defeats of the Muslims. 1549 –The zenith of the Songhai Empire under Askia Daud (1549-1582).1569 — The Great Mosque of Timbuktu is restored by Cadi El Aquib. 1593 — Moroccans defeat the Songahai with the help of firearms; rape of men & women is

common. 1593 — University of Sankoré, in Timbuktu is destroyed by Arabs & the faculty is exiled to Morocco. 1593 — The great Sudanese scholar Ahmed Baba loses 1,600 books during forced exile by Arabs. 1596 — Askia Nuh does not accept Arab domination and organizes national resistance. 1606 —

Enslaved Africans in Brazil establish a maroon settlement known as Palmares. 1623 — Queen Nzingha becomes Monarch of Ndanga (Angola) and declares war on the

Portuguese. 1655 — 1,500 enslaved Africans go to Jamaican mountains, establishing free Maroon communities. 1663 — Slave rebellion takes place on September 13th in Gloucester County, Virginia *1666-1776: Slaves imported only by the English for the English, French and Spanish colonies: 3

million (250,000 died on the voyage). 1672 — Charles the II of England charters the Royal African Company for the purpose of slave

trading. *1680-1786: Slaves imported for the English colonies in America: 2,130,000 (Jamaica alone

absorbed 610,000). 1695 — King Zumbi of Palmares is killed by the Portuguese; Palmares is destroyed (November

20th). 1712 — A slave insurrection occurred April 7th in New York City. *1716-1756: Average annual number of slaves imported for the American colonies: 70,000, with a

total of 3.5 million. 1739 — The Maroons of Jamaica and the British sign a peace treaty on March 1st. 1739 — Led by Cato on September 9th, slaves rebel and kill more than 25 enslavers. *1752-1762: Jamaica alone imported 71,115 slaves. *1759-1762: Guadeloupe alone imported 40,000 slaves. 1770 — Crispus Attucks is one of the first to die for America at the Boston Massacre on March 5th. 1772 — Lord Mansfield declares exportation of slaves from Britain illegal.1772 — James Somerset, becomes de facto spokesman for Blacks in Britain. 1773 — Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral was published by Phillis Wheatley. 1774 — Henry Smeathmen proposes to the British government to set up a colony in Sierra Leone. 1776 — During American Revolution many Blacks fight for British promised freedom (ends 1783). *1776-1800: A yearly average of 74,000 slaves were imported for the American colonies, or a total

of 1,850,000; this yearly average was divided up as follows: by the English, 38,000; French,

20,000; Portuguese, 10,000; Dutch, 4,000; Danes, 2,000. 1777 — The Republic of Vermont passes the 1st constitution in the U.S. prohibiting slavery. 1777 — 5,000 Africans participate in the U.S. Revolutionary War. 1783 — Blacks establish settlements in Nova Scotia separately from Whites & legally unrecognized. 1786 — Quakers in Pennsylvania begin to organize the Underground Railroad. 1786 — Blacks in London sign up for colony at Sierra Leone; disembark in Feb ‘87. 1787 — King Naimbana of Temnes permits colony to settle in a treaty with a local British governor. 1787 — The Free African Society is founded in Philadelphia by Richard Allen and Absalom Jones. 1790 — Sierra Leone, disastrous failure most die from disease; town is destroyed by local peoples. 1790 — Discontented Blacks arrive from Nova Scotia and are met by Granville Town survivors. 1793 — Congress passes the first Fugitive Slave Act on February 12th. 1794 — Sierra Leone attacked by French privateers; colony liberated in two months. 1795 — Jean Baptist Pointe DuSable establishes a trading post at the mouth of the Chicago River. 1798 — Egypt conquered by Napoleon of France. 1800 — Discontent Blacks rebel after demand for Black judges denied; rebellion crushed in a week. 1801 — War in Sierre Leone (ends 1807). 1803 — Sierra Leone Co. petitions British Parliament for loans; they are rejected over four years. 1807 — Colony become under rule directly from London and Sierra Leone Co. is legally dissolved. 1801 — Africans led by Toussaint L’Ouverture revolt and seize complete power in Haiti from

France. 1807 — The British Parliament bans the slave trade. 1808 — The importation of enslaved Africans is forbidden by the U.S.; law is ignored. 1810 — The Afro-American Insurance Company is established by three black men. 1811 — Paul Cuffe, a black nationalist begins transporting blacks from North America back to Africa. 1815 — Fulani Emirs declared a jihad against the Hausa state of Gobir 1818 — Frederick Douglass is born on Maryland’s Eastern Shore in Talbot County in February. 1820 — Mohammad Ali of Egypt captures Sudan. 1822 — African Americans settlers found Monrovia, capital of Liberia. 1822 — George Wilson (a black slave) tells white slavers of Denmark Vesey’s plan to lead a revolt. 1823 — Alexander Lucius Twilight graduates from Middlebury College. 1827 — The first African American newspaper is published, Freedom’s Journal. 1831 — The Honorable Nat Turner begins his fight for freedom in Virginia, 60 slavers killed. 1832 — The anti-slavery Abolitionist Party is founded in Boston. 1833 — Enslaved people are freed in all British possessions. 1834 — Henry Blair is the first African American to be granted a U.S. patent (for a seed planter). 1837 — Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (novelist), a Russian of African descent, is killed in a duel. 1838 — The first African American magazine is published, The Mirror of Liberty. 1839 — Frederick Douglass escapes from slavery. 1839 — Slaves revolt on Spanish ship, Amistad and secure freedom via Supreme Court. 1841 — William A. Liedesdorff from the Virgin Islands becomes the 1st African American millionaire. 1843 — U.S. Patent Office issues Norbert Rillieux a patent for a revolutionary system of refining

sugar. 1844 — Macon B. Allen is admitted to the bar in Maine to practice law as a licensed attorney. 1845 — Frederick Douglass’s autobiography Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass is

published. 1847 — Liberia becomes an independent republic on July 26th. 1847 — Frederick Douglass begins publishing The North Star, an anti-slavery journal. 1849 — Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery; returns to the South over twenty times to free others. 1850 — Slave trade is forbidden in the District of Columbia. 1850 — Emperor Tewodros II led campaigns against Egyptian intruders. 1852 — Martin R. Delany publishes The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny…. 1853 — William Wells Brown’s novel The President’s Daughter is published. 1854 — The first modern college for Blacks established at Ashmun Institute (Lincoln University). 1855 — The founder of modern Ethiopia, Emperor Tewodros II unifies Ethiopia and teaches

Menelik. 1857 — The Supreme Court denies blacks U.S. citizenship; Dred Scott loses his case. 1859 — Militant anti-slaver, John Brown is hung for treason after raiding a federal arsenal in

Virginia. 1859 — Harriet Wilson’s novel Our Nig is published. 1860 — Isaac Myers begins organizing the Colored National Labor Union.1861 — Yoruba, under pressure from black muslims, draws closer to Britain, which annexes Lagos. 1862 — Ida B. Wells is born on July 16th. 1862 — 186,000 Africans serve during the Civil War; 38,000 die in service. 1863 — The first school for freed enslaved people is founded in Frogmore, South Carolina. 1863– Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation. 1863 — William Brown published The Black Man: His Antecedents, His Genius, & His

Achievements. 1864 — The Ku Klux Klan is organized in Pulaski, Tennessee. 1864 — During the Berlin Conference of 1884-85 European countries plot the complete

colonialization of Africa 1865 — General Lee surrenders to General Grant at Appomotax, ending the U.S. Civil War 1865 — The Thirteenth Amendment, which outlaws slavery in the U.S., is ratified 1866 — Fisk University is established in Knoxville, Tennessee. 1867 — Negro League Baseball begins in early Spring until late Fall then the Winter season 1867 — Sarah Breedlove (Madam C.J. Walker) is born on a Mississippi River plantation in Delta, LA

to former slaves, Owens and Minerva Breedlove 1868 — The Fourteenth Amendment, validating citizenship rights for all persons born in the U.S. 1869 — The British and other Ethiopians encircled Emperor Tewrodos II; he commits suicide. 1870 — The ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment secures voting rights for all male U.S. citizens. 1870 — Thomas M. Peterson is the first African American to vote. 1874 — Blanche Kelso Bruce becomes the first African American senator to serve a full term. 1876 — Edward Alexander Bouchet receives a Ph.D. in physics from Yale University. 1879 — The Zulus defeat the British for the last time in The Battle of Isandlwana. 1879 — A European, Dr. Felkin witnesses a caesarean operation by Banyoro surgeons in Uganda. 1881 — British and Ottoman troops seize control of Egypt and Sudan. 1881 — Booker T. Washington establishes the Tuskegee Institute, an industrial school for blacks. 1883 — Spelman College is founded in Atlanta, Georgia. 1884 — Granville T. Woods secures his first patent was in 1884 for a steam boiler furnace. 1884 — British control of Nigeria expanded, set up under treaties with Yoruba rulers. 1885 — Mohammed-Ahmed, a Sudanese defeats the Anglo-Arab army recapturing much land. 1885 — Belgium colonizes Zaire as Congo Free State. 1885 — A patent is awarded to Sarah Goode for a folding cabinet bed. 1886 — Menelik moves the Ethiopian capital to the Intoto valley (Addis Ababa). 1886 — Frederick Douglass travels to Africa and climbs one of the pyramids. 1887 — Ethiopians defeat a small contingent of Italians near Dogali. 1887 — The Honorable Marcus Garvey is born in Jamaica, August 17th (32 Market St., St. Ann’s

Bay). 1887 — Granville T. Woods patents the rail telegraph system. 1889 — Ida B. Wells becomes editor of the Free Press and the Highlight. 1889 — Menelik II is crowned the new Emperor and he makes a treaty with Italy. 1891 — Provident Hospital in Chicago, Illinois becomes the 1st African American Hospital. 1892 — Ida B. Wells is the first writer to document the lynching of African Americans. 1892 — Sarah Boone receives a patent for an ironing board. 1895 — Paul Laurence Dunbar’s poetry collection Majors and Minors is published. 1895 — Frederick Douglass dies. 1896 — Near Adwa, a small Tigrayen city, Ethiopia defeats the Italian colonial army and kills

12,000. 1896 — Paul Laurence Dunbar’s poetry collection Lyrics of Lowly Life is published. 1896 — U.S. Supreme Court decides that separate but equal does not violate the Constitution. 1898 — Paul Robeson is born in Princeton, New Jersey on 4/9, son of an escaped enslaved

person. 1899 — Dr. George F. Grant patented the wooden golf tee (Patent #638,920). 1900 — Britain controls Nigeria. 1900 — The first Pan-African Congress convenes in London. 1901 — James and J. Rosamond Johnson write “Lift Every Voice and Sing”. 1901 — Booker T. Washington’s autobiography Up from Slavery is published. 1903 — W.E.B. DuBois’s collection The Souls of Black Folks: Essays & Sketches is published. 1903 — The Future Heavyweight Champ Jack Johnson plays 1st base for the Philadelphia Giants. 1903 — Maggie Lena Walker becomes Bank President of St. Luke Bank & Trust Company. 1903 — Williams and Walker open “In Dahomey” the first all black musical on a major Broadway

stage. 1904 — Madam C.J. Walker works as an agent for Annie (Pope Turnbo) Malone, founder of the

Poro Company, an early manufacturer of hair care products for black women. 1904 — The Atlanta debate between W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington occurs. 1904 —

Philip Payton founds the Afro-American Realty Company in New York City. 1905 — Madam C.J. Walker moves to Denver where she establishes her own hair care products

company. 1905 — The Niagara Movement is established; among its leaders is W.E.B. DuBois. 1905 — In Negro Baseball League good teams in major cities make money; white league does not. 1907 — Alain Locke is the first African American Rhodes Scholar. 1908 — Jack Johnson wins the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship. 1908 — Madam Walker moves to Pittsburgh and opens Lelia College to train Walker “hair

culturists”. 1909 — The NAACP is founded in New York; almost all the signers of the charter are white. 1909 — Kwame Nkrumah is born on September 18th in the village of Nkroful, Ghana. 1909 — Matthew Henson reaches the North Pole. 1910 — The Hilldale Club of Negro Baseball and their stadium is owned by a Black man. 1910 —

Madame C.J. Walker establishes a manufacturing plant in Indianapolis. 1910 — Granville T. Woods, master inventor (over 60 patents in his name) dies. 1911 — National Urban League is founded in New York City. 1911 — Madam Walker pledges $1,000 to the building fund of Indianapolis’s new black YMCA. 1912 — W. C. Handy published the first blues song, Memphis Blues on September 27th. 1912 —

James Weldon Johnson’s novel The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man is published. 1912 — Madam Walker speaks at the National Negro Business League convention. 1913 — Menelik II dies and is succeeded by his grandson Lej Isayu. 1913 — Madam Walker divorces C.J. Walker, but retains his name. A’Lelia persuades her mother to

purchase a townhouse at 108-110 West 136th Street in Harlem. 1914 — The Universal Negro Improvement & Conservation Association & African Communities

League is launched by the Honorable Marcus Garvey. 1914 — Nigerian Council of six African and 30 European members was set up to advise the

governor. 1915 — The great migration of southern blacks to the North begins; industry needs labor. 1916 — Belgium takes over rule of Burundi and Rwanda. 1916 — Madam Walker purchases property in Irvington-on-Hudson, New York, the wealthiest

residential community in America. 1916 — 350,000 African Americans serve during World War I. 1917 — Race riots in East St. Louis, Illinois. 1917 — Silent Protest Parade in New York City on July 27th. 1918 — The Honorable Marcus Garvey incorporates the Universal Negro Improvement Association

in the USA. 1918 — Manuel Raimundo Querino publishes The African Contribution to Brazilian Civilization. 1918 — The French award the Croix de Guerre to the 369th Regiment and named it “Harlem Hell

Fighters”. 1919 — Oscar Micheaux finishes his first film, The Homesteader. 1919 — Paul Robeson graduates Valedictorian, Phi Beta Kappa, All-American Football from

Rutgers. 1919 — Madam Walker hosts a meeting of the International League of Darker People with Marcus

Garvey. 1919 — On May 25th Madam Walker dies at Villa Lewaro of kidney failure caused by hypertension. 1919 — W.E.B. DuBois organizes the first Pan-African Congress in Paris. 1921 — Bessie Coleman earns an International Pilot’s license. 1921 — Henry Pace forms the Pace Phonographic Corporation, which owned the Black Swan label. 1922 — Legislative Council (ten Africans, four of them elected, and 36 Europeans) in Nigeria. 1922 — Jack Johnson, the first Black Boxing Champion patents a theft-prevention device for

vehicles. 1922 — Claude McKay’s poetry collection Harlem Shadows is published. 1923 — Harlem Renaissance Basketball club founded. 1923 — Ethiopia becomes a member of the League of Nations. 1923 — Garrett A. Morgan receives a patent for the first automatic traffic light. 1923 — Paul Robeson graduates from Columbia Law School. 1923 — Marcus Garvey’s The Philosophy & Opinion of Marcus Garvey, two volume set is

published. 1923 — Jean Toomer’s prose collection Cane is published. 1924 — Paul Robeson stars in the lead of The Emperor Jones in the Provincetown Theatre in NYC. 1924 — Paul Robeson stars in his first film, Body and Soul by Oscar Micheaux. 1925 — The Division of Negro Literature, History, and Prints (Schomburg Center) opens. 1925 — The New Negro: An Interpretation is published, formally recognizing Harlem Renaissance. 1925 — The Honorable Marcus Garvey is betrayed by his own people and is sent to prison. 1926 — Carter G. Woodson head of Ass. for Study of Negro Life & History, creates Negro History

Week. 1926 — John William Coltrane is born in Hamlet, North Caroline on September 23, 1926. 1927 — Langston Hughes’s poetry collection Fine Clothes to the Jew is published. 1927 — James Weldon Johnson’s God’s Trombones: Seven Negro Sermons in Verse is published. 1927 — A’Lelia Walker (Madam’s daughter) open Dark Tower, a salon for Harlem Renaissance

writers, artists, and musicians, at her 136th Street townhouse. 1928 — Iytoopia(ETHIOPIA) is admitted into the League of Nations1928 — Innovation of metal ring head mounting system and rope tuning via the Mali weave for

djembe’ and other African drums. 1928 — The Mme.C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company opens a $1,000,000 factory, office building

and movie theater in Indianapolis. 1929 — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. 1929 — The U.S. stock market crash sends Mme.C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company into a

financial crisis. 1930 — Ras Tafari Mekonen was crowned the new Emperor Haile Selasie after the death of

Empress. 1930 — The first Temple of Islam is founded in Detroit, Michigan. 1930 — The Kansas City Monarchs have the first portable light system in Negro Baseball. 1930 — Paul Robeson stars in the London production of Shakespeare’s Othello. 1931 — Ida B. Wells joins her ancestors on March 25th. 1933 — H. Naylor Fitzhugh is the first African American to graduate from the Harvard Business

School. 1933 — The publication of the journal Létudiant noir marks the offical birth of the negritude

movement. 1934 — Paul and Essie Robeson travel to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Russian film director. 1935 — Negro Baseball League is stable; all clubs at breakeven; biggest black business, $2 MM/yr. 1935 — Mary McLeod Bethune founds the National Council of Negro Women 1935 — Harlem Race Riot occurs. 1935 — Kwame Nkrumah is introduced to The Philosophy & Opinions of Marcus Garvey. 1936 — Jesse Owens wins 4 gold medals at the Olympics in Berlin, Germany. 1936 — Josh Gibson, a catcher for the Negro League’s Pittsburgh Crawfords hits 84 homers. 1937 — Zora Neale Hurston’s novel Their Eyes Were Watching God is published. 1937 — W.E.B. DuBois & Paul Robeson are co-founders & co-chairmen of Council on African

Affairs. 1939 — Aimé F. Césaire, The Father of Negritude uses the word in Cahier d’un retour au pays

natal. 1940 — The Honorable Marcus Garvey dies with a broken heart on June 10th (God bless his soul). 1940 — American Negro Theater founded. 1940 — Richard Wright publishes the novel Native Son. 1942 — John H. Johnson publishes Negro Digest in November with a $500 loan on mother’s

furniture. 1943 — Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Tigray. 1943 — With Paul Robeson, Othello breaks all Broadway records for Shakespearean productions. 1944 — The U.S. Supreme Court rules that no American can be denied the right to vote. 1944 — The United Negro College Fund is founded on April 24th. 1945 — Dr. Lloyd A. Quarterman receives an award of appreciation for his work on the Atomic

Bomb. 1945 — The Negro Leagues reach a plateau of stability and efficiency. 1945 — Gwendolyn Brooks’s poetry collection A Street in Bronzeville is published. 1945 — John Coltrane has his first professional jazz appearance, playing alto sax with the Jimmy

Johnson Big Band. 1945 — Richard Wright’s autobiography Black Boy: A Record of Childhood and Youth is published. 1946 — Takala Walda-Hawaryat opposes the return of the exiled Emperor Selasie, is detained. 1946 — Jackie Robinson integrates into the White Baseball League. 1946 — The Street, published by Ann Petry sells more than one million copies. 1947 — Every team in the Negro Leagues loses money; black fans more interested in integration. 1947 — John Coltrane has a jam session with Charlie Parker. 1947 — Présence Africaine, a leading literary journal is founded by Senghor, Césaire, and Demas. 1947 — John Hope Franklin publishes From Slavery to Freedom. 1947 — The new Nigeria Council had 28 African (four elected) and 17 European members. 1948 — Apartheid is instituted in South Africa; it calls for the supremacy of whites. 1948 — U.S. President Harry Truman bans segregation in the armed forces. 1949 — Singer Juanita Hall is the first African American to receive a Tony award. 1950 — John Coltrane (on alto) has a recording session with Dizzy Gillespie and his Orchestra. 1950 — The U.S. government takes Paul Robeson’s passport and attempts to silence him. 1950 — Kwame Nkrumah is arrested and imprisoned by the British. 1950 — Ralph Bunche receives the Nobel Peace Prize for his work as a mediator in Palestine. 1950 — Gwendolyn Brooks is awarded a Pulitzer Prize for her collection of poems, Annie Allen. 1952 — John Coltrane plays with Miles Davis and Sonny Rollins at the Audubon Ballroom in

Harlem. 1952 — Africans rebel against British rule in the Mau-Mau uprisings in Kenya (until 1956). 1952 — On March 5th Kwame Nkrumah is named the Prime Minister of Ghana. 1953 — James Baldwin publishes Go Tell It on the Mountain. 1953 — Ralph Ellison receives the National Book Award for fiction for his novel Invisible Man. 1954 — A further constitution declared Nigeria a federation. 1954 — U.S. Supreme Court rules that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. 1954 — George and Joan Johnson found the Johnson Product Company.1955 — Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop publishes Nations Nègres et Culture. 1955 — Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama bus. 1956 — U.S. Supreme Court outlaws segregated seating on buses. 1956 — The First Congress of African Writers is held in Paris. 1957 — The Southern Christian Leadership Conference is formed on February 14th. 1957 — Kwame Nkrumah leads Ghana to independence on March 5th. 1957 — U.S. Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1957. 1957 — John W. Coltrane experiences his spiritual rebirth in 1957; no more drugs. 1957 — Internal self-government was gained by the Eastern and Western regions of Nigeria. 1957 — Black Orpheus, a journal of African writing is established in Nigeria. 1957 — John Coltrane works with Thelonious Monk at the Five Spot in New York. 1958 — The U.S government returns Paul Robeson’s passport, his health is poor. 1958 — Addis Abeba became the registered office for the Economic Commission for Africa. 1958 — Chinua Achebe’s novel Things Fall Apart is published. 1958 — Paul Robeson’s autobiography Here I Stand is published. 1958 — The Book of Negro Folklore, edited by Arna Bontemps and Langston Hughes is published. 1959 — Internal self-government was gained by Northern Nigeria. 1959 — Berry Gordy establishes Motown Records in Detroit, Michigan. 1959 — Lorraine Hansberry’s play A Raisin in the Sun is produced and published. 1959 — Ruth Bowen establishes the Queen Booking Company, a talent agency in New York City. 1960 — Nigeria is free. 1960 — Ghana is declared a republic and Nkrumah becomes its first President on July 1st. 1960 — Congo becomes an independent nation. 1960 — South African police fire on demonstrators at Sharpeville; murdering 67. 1960 — Marion Barry founds the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). 1960 — John Coltrane wins both the general and critics polls of Down Beat magazine for tenor sax;

wins critics poll for combo and miscellaneous instrument (soprano sax). 1960 — Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Sidamo. 1960 — A coup by General Mengistu Naway and his brother Garwane Naway fails in Ethiopia. 1961 — Led by Julius Nyerere, Tanganyika achieves independence from Britain. 1961 — A. Phillip Randolph march in Washington D.C. 1961 — Wilt Chamberlain scores 100 points in a single game to create an unbreakable record. 1961 — Bob Marley, Bunny Livingston, and Peter Tosh form a group called the Rudeboys. 1961 — Ossie Davis’s play Purlie Victorious is produced and published. 1962 — Rwanda and Burundi gain independence. 1962 — John Coltrane has a recording Session with Duke Ellington. 1963 — Under the leadership of Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya achieves independence from Britain. 1963 — Frantz Fanon publishes The Wretched of the Earth. 1963 — Medgar Evers murdered by Klansman in Mississippi (6/12). 1963 — Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Bale (until 1970). 1963 — Nigeria became a Republic with Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe its first President (October 1st). 1963 — A black church is bombed in Birmingham, Alabama, killing four girls (9/15). 1963 — W.E.B. DuBois passes away. 1963 — March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom draws 250,000 demonstrators. 1963 — The Organization for African Unity is founded in the Ethiopian capital. 1963 — Queen Mother Moore forms the Reparations Committee of Descendants of U.S. Slaves. 1963 — Gordon Parks’ novel The Learning Tree is published. 1963 — Wole Soyinka’s plays The Lion & the Jewel and A Dance in the Forest are published. 1964 — Al-Hajj Malik Shabazz forms the Organization of Afro-American Unity. 1964 — John Coltrane records A Love Supreme, Part I, II, III, and IV. 1964 — Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.1964 — The Civil Rights Act abolishes segregation in public accommodations in the South. 1964 — Eight South African leaders, including Nelson Mandela are sentenced to life imprisonment. 1964 — Amiri Baraka’s play Dutchman is produced and published. 1965 — Many student demonstrations in the streets of Addis Ababa. 1965 — Al-Hajj Malik Shabazz is murdered by his own people in front of family (2/21 @ 3:10pm). 1965 — The Autobiography of Malcolm X is published. 1965 — Elijah Muhammad publishes Message to the Blackman in America.1965 — Race riots in the Watts district of Los Angeles; over $225 million in property damage. 1965 — A white minority regime declares Rhodesia independent, civil war begins (until 1979). 1965 — The Voting Rights Act provides guarantees for black voting in the South. 1966 — The first of seven coups in Nigeria occurred in January (many leaders murdered). 1966 — While away visiting China, Kwame Nkrumah is overthrown on February 24th. 1966 — Bobby Seale & Huey Newton found the Black Panther Party in Oakland, California. 1967 — Eastern Nigeria claims independence as the Republic of Biafra; this leads to a civil war. 1967 — Black Power Conference in Newark, NJ. 1967 — John Coltrane opens The Olatunji Center of African Culture, 43 East 125th Street, Harlem

on March 27th. 1967 — John William Coltrane dies in Huntington, Long Island on July 17, 1967. 1968 — Black Power Conference in Philadelphia, PA. 1968 — Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Gojam. 1968 — Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee; riots occur in 125 U.S.

areas. 1969 — Fred Hampton is murdered in Chicago, IL. 1969 — Black Power Conference in Bermuda, W.I. 1969 — U.S. Supreme Court rules that school districts must end racial segregation at once. 1969 — Toni Morrison’s novel The Bluest Eye is published. 1970 — Poor people in Ethiopia revolt in Wolo. 1970 — Biafra was defeated in January 1970; the war takes one million Nigerian lives. 1970 — Congress on African People in Atlanta, GA. 1970 — Maya Angelou published I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. 1971 — Ernest J. Gaines’s novel The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman is published. 1971 — Dr. Yosef A.A. ben-Jochannan publishes Africa Mother of Western Civilization. 1971 — George Jackson murdered (8/21). 1972 — Frank Wills, an African American security guard discovers the Watergate Break-in. 1972 — Wole Soyinka’s autobiography The Man Died: Prison Notes of Wole Soyinka is published. 1972 — On April 27th Kwame Nhrumah dies in Burcharest. 1973 — Ayi Kwei Armah published Two Thousand Seasons. 1973 — Emperor Haile Selasie is overthrown by a military coup on September 12th. 1974 — Ethiopian peasants revolt against their feudal exploiters. 1975 — Arthur Ashe wins the Wimbledon singles title. 1975 — Emperor Haile Selasie is killed in August and buried under one of his former palaces. 1975 — Another Nigerian coup, new leader Brigadier Murtala Muhammed. 1976 — Paul Robeson passes on January 23rd. 1976 — Negro History Week becomes Black History Month. 1976 — Abortive Nigerian coup, Brigadier Murtala Muhammed is assassinated. 1976 — Police fire on demonstrating students and school children in the Soweto, South Africa. 1976 — Alex Haley’s novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family is published. 1976 — Ntozake Shange’s play for colored girls who have considered suicide is produced. 1978 — National Black Consciousness Day (Zumbi Day) is established in Brazil on November 20th. 1978 — Muhammad Ali wins the world heavyweight boxing championship for a record third time. 1978 — James Alan McPherson receives a Pulitzer Prize for his short story collection Elbow Room. 1979 — Multi-party elections are held in Nigeria and Alhaji Shehu Shagari becomes President. 1980 — Freedom fighters destroy Rhodesia; The Republic of Zimbabwe is reestablished. 1980 — Robert Johnson establishes Black Entertainment Television with a $15,000 loan. 1983 — Guion S. Bluford, Jr. is the first African American astronaut in space. 1983 — Gloria Naylor wins an American Book Award for The Women of Brewster Place. 1983 — Alice Walker wins both an American Book Award and a Pulitzer Prize for The Color Purple. 1983 — President Shagari re-elected in Nigeria. 1983 — Another Nigerian military coup, Major-General Mohammadu Buhari becomes Head of

State. 1984 — Oprah Winfrey accepts a job as host of A.M. Chicago, a morning show in the Windy City. 1984 — Archbishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa receives the Nobel Peace Prize. 1984 — Amiri Baraka’s The Autobiography of LeRoi Jones is published 1984 — Rev. Jesse Jackson is the 1st African American to make a serious run for U.S. presidency. 1985 — Another Nigerian coup, new leader Major-General Ibrahim Babangida. 1985 — Sonia Sanchez receives an American Book Award for homegirls & handgrenades. 1986 — Wole Soyinka is awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. 1986 — Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop passes on February 7th. 1987 — Dr. Benjamin S. Carson is the first to successfully separate Siamese twins joined at the

head. 1987 — Ivan Van Sertima pubishes They Came Before Columbus. 1987 — Frederick D. Gregory is the first person of African ancestry to command a space shuttle. 1987 — Rita Dove receives a Pulitzer Prize for her poetry collection Thomas and Beulah. 1987 — Dr. Molefi Kete Asante publishes The Afrocentric Idea. 1987 — Reginald Lewis buys Beatrice International Foods for just under $1 billion on August 6th. 1988 — Terry McMillan wins an American Book Award for her novel Mama. 1988 — Toni Morrison receives a Pulitzer Prize for her novel Beloved. 1989 — Bill White becomes the president of Major League Basaball’s National League. 1989 — Ronald H. Brown named Chairman of the Democratic National Committee. 1990 — South African F.W. de Klerk pledges to eliminate apartheid & releases Nelson Mandela. 1990 — Namibia becomes independent following a long struggle to end South African occupation. 1990 — Charles Johnson receives a National Book Award for his novel Middle Passage. 1990 —

August Wilson wins a Pulitzer Prize for his play The Piano Lesson. 1990 — George Washington Carver & Percy Julian are admitted into National Inventor’s Hall of

Fame. 1990 — L. Douglas Wilder of Virginia becomes the first African American elected governor in U.S.

1990 — “In Living Color” wins an Emmy for Outstanding Comedy Series. 1991 — Dr. Frances Cress Welsing publishes The Isis Papers, The Keys to the Colors. 1992 — Dr. Mae Jemison travels into space on the space shuttle Endeavor. 1992 — A race riot sweeps across Los Angeles following the Rodney King verdict. 1992 — Derek Walcott is awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. 1992 — Anthony T. Browder publishes Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization. 1993 — Madam Walker’s mansion is purchased by a black family (Harold and Helena Doley). 1993 — Multi-party elections in Nigeria were annulled by Babangida, who shortly after resigned. 1993 — In Nigeria’s seventh coup, General Sani Abacha assumes power.1993 — Toni Morrison wins the Nobel Prize for literature. 1993 — Arthur Ashe’s autobiography Days of Grace: A Memoir is published. 1994 — Llaila O. Afrika publishes Nutricide — The Nutritional Destruction of the Black Race. 1994 — Nelson Mandela takes office as South Africa’s first black president. 1994 — Plane crash kills leaders of both Burundi and Rwanda, unleashing ethnic killing. 1995 —

Over one million men of African ancestry gather in Washington D.C. for the Million Man March. 1996 — Nigeria wins the Gold Medal in 1996 Olympic Football (Soccer). 1997 — In January Kofi Annan of Ghana becomes the seventh secretary-general of the United

Nations. 1997 — Tiger Woods wins The Masters; breaking several golf records in the process. 1997 — In May Laurent Kabila is declared president of the Democratic Republic of Congo (ex-

Zaire). 1997 — The first made-in-Nigeria saloon car known as Z-600 launched in the eastern city of Owerri. 1997 — Over one million women of African ancestry gather in Philadelphia for Million Woman

March. 1997 — Multi-party elections begin in Nigeria. 1997 — Ivorian Freedom Neruda & Nigerian Christine Anyanwu win International Press Freedom

Prize. 1997 — Uganda becomes Africa’s major coffee producer with exports exceeding 4.2 million bags. 1998 — Madam Walker becomes the subject of the United States Postal Service commemorative

stamps. 1998 — Five African nations compete in the World Cup (Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, Morocco

and Tunisia). 1998 — Nigeria’s leader, General Sani Abacha dies of a heart attack. 1998 — Thousands of Africans are killed in Kenya and Tanzania from a bomb attack. 1999 — Al-Hajj Malik Shabazz becomes the subject of the United States Postal Service

commemorative stamps. 2??? — The Iytoopian man returns home to build a new nation with his partner the Iytoopian woman.

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